Journal Article

Tackling conflicts, supporting livelihoods: Convivial conservation in the Campo Ma'an National Park

While most of the literature on park management and nature conservation has focused on the negative implications
for local people’s livelihoods, fewer studies have empirically analysed local people’s strategies in responding to these
policies and renegotiating their position to continue their traditional livelihoods using their traditional knowledge
and legal systems. This study contributes to the current literature on nature conservation by focusing on the impacts
of nationally and internationally driven nature conservation policies on indigenous people and local communities
(IPLCs) and collective strategies and responses to such policies and initiatives to continue their livelihood and
cultural practices. We employ a qualitative research approach, using the convivial conservation theoretical lens
to analyse the data collected. We conclude that conservation policies have worsened existing livelihoods and
constrained the improvement of indigenous people’s livelihoods and local communities. Yet, IPLCs have devised
coping mechanisms to deal with the negative effects of these conservation interventions, which include resistance
to some conservation policies, agricultural intensification, and involvement in commercial activities. We argue
that the convivial conservation approach may offer viable solutions to existing conflicts by promoting human and
non-human coexistence, based on indigenous and local people’s knowledge and practices.