A meta-analysis of adoption studies of climate-smart agriculture practices (CSAPs) in Ethiopia
The objectives of this review were to synthesize adoption studies of climate-smart agricultural 8 practices (CSAPs); examine their adoption status, including gender considerations, socioeconomic 9 benefits, and constraints to CSAP adoption; identify gaps in the current CSAP adoption literature, 10 and highlight future CSAP research and policy directions. Following a systematic literature review 11 procedure, a total of 100 articles published between 2001 and 2021 in Ethiopia were reviewed. 12 Although all the publications were about the highlands of Ethiopia, over 80% came from the 13 regions of Oromiya, Amhara, and South Nations and Nationalities. The most adopted practice was 14 soil and water conservation (SWC), with a mean adoption rate of 61.5%, followed by integrated 15 soil fertility management, and agroforestry with mean adoption rates of 56.5% and 48.8%, 16 respectively. Gender analysis was considered in the studies of: all improved livestock 17 management; a little higher than a half of the SWC; and over 75% of the remaining five practices. 18 Quantified socioeconomic benefits were reported in only 46 papers. Greater farm income; 19 increased land productivity; higher yields; increased food availability; and reduced household 20 poverty were among the reported benefits of adopters compared to their counterparts. Among the 21 aggregated constraints, socioeconomic factors and knowledge/awareness were ranked the two 22 highest, followed by labor shortage and limited market access. The study highlighted research 23 gaps: a lack of national-scale studies and studies focusing on drought prone regions; and 37% and 24 46% of the studies, respectively, didn’t consider gender, and analysis of socioeconomic benefits of 25 adoption of CSAPs. It also highlighted future policy directions.